Offset - the giving tree


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Using this formula the height of the tree can be calculated no matter what angle you are holding your arm, and no matter what the length of the yardstick that extends above your hand. This has a big advantage if you are measuring a tree on uneven ground or if you can only measure the tree from a single angle. One problem that also often occurs is in order to see the top of the tree; the surveyor must be farther away from the tree than possible using a yardstick length of 23–25 inches (58–64 centimetres) (average arm to eye length). Using the simple formula above a smaller length of stick can be used allowing the surveyor to actually see the top of the tree. [14] As with A. and B. above, this method assumes that the top of the tree is vertically over the base. If this assumption is violated, the triangles will not be similar and the ratio and proportion relationship of the sides of similar triangles will not apply.

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Note that you should change these parameters only with the engine OFF (or the stim rpm at no more than 300 rpm). The missing tooth code uses the teeth of the missing tooth crank wheel to create 'tach teeth'. That is, it creates a tach signal from a particular tooth, then skips a number of teeth before declaring another tooth a tach signal. This means that all the tach teeth must correspond to real teeth. For a four stroke cycle engine, this means that the total number of teeth, including missing ones, must be evenly divisible by ½ the number of cylinders (or by the number of cylinders for a 2-stroke). There is more information on the trigger wheel usage in the missing tooth trigger wheel decoder page . The trigger wheel settings are:

  • Trigger Wheel Teeth ( No_Teeth ): is the nominal (include missing) teeth for wheel decoding. (set this to 0 for no wheel decoding).
  • Missing Teeth ( No_Miss_Teeth ): Number of consecutive missing teeth. That is, the size of the gap in the wheel's teeth, measured in terms of the number of regular teeth (high part and low part) that would have fit in the gap. If you set this to zero (like a Mazda KLDE 6-0 crank wheel, for example) then you must choose one of the dual spark options to recognize the cam sync signal:
    • Falling Cam Sync with Tach or Wheel, or
    • Rising Cam Sync with Tach or Wheel
    If you have a single ignition module (like the KLDE), and your module requires a high signal for the dwell period, you must then tie the dual outputs together with a logic 'OR' circuit. The circuit will prevent the ignition outputs from short-circuiting the processor outputs when one is trying to pull the signal high, and the other is trying to pull the signal low. This is done with a 'forward' diode on each output. 1N4001 diodes, or similar, will work fine. The banded end of the diode goes on the module side of each ignition output, a 100K &Ohm; resistor is used to pull the signal to ground, then the wires are joined and connected to the module's spark input. Here is a schematic of a logic OR circuit (high if either IGN1 or IGN2 are high, low otherwise; use if the dwell period of the signal for the ignition module needs to be high): Here is an schematic of a logic AND circuit (high only if both IGN1 or IGN2 are high, low otherwise; use if the dwell period of the signal for the ignition module needs to be low): There is more on tieing the IGN outputs together here: / Note that the cam input and second ignition output only come on MicroSquirt ® controllers, though in theory it is possible to add them to a V3 main board with some DIY work. Note that an N-0 wheel can also be run in (crank wheel) wasted dual spark mode with a Rising/Falling crank synch - these are the last dual spark 2 modes ('N-0 Wheel w/ Falling Crank Sync' or 'N-0 Wheel w/ Rising Crank Sync').
  • Skip Teeth ( No_Skip_Teeth ): Number of teeth (between tach pulses) to be skipped. You must create the same number of 'tach' signals as you want ignition events. On a four cylinder four stroke engine, this is two per revolution. Suppose it has a 60-2 wheel. What you need to have happen is for MegaSquirt-II to 'skip' a certain number of teeth so the only the right number of teeth are counted as 'tach signals' per revolution. Since we have determined the number of tach signals we want is 2, we need to skip 60/2 = 30 teeth. For a eight cylinder 60-2, we need 4 ignition events per revolution, so we set skip teeth to 60/4 = 15. And for an eight cylinder 36-1 wheel, we would set skip teeth = 36/4 = 9.
  • Delay Teeth ( Delay_Teeth ): Number of teeth to delay after 1st tooth after the missing teeth before 1st tach synch declared. You get synch as soon as you detect "first real tooth after the missing tooth". If that tooth is at TDC when it is detected, then there is 0 delay. If TDC doesn't occur until the next tooth is detected, then there is a delay of one tooth, and so forth.
  • Dual Spark Options : Dual spark options are primarily for MicroSquirt ® controllers, which has dual ignition inputs and outputs. In theory these outputs can be added to a V3 main board with some DIY work.
    • No Dual Spark
    • Dual Tach Inputs for 2 ignition inputs and 2 outputs. Specifying this option uses the 2 pwm1,2 pins (TC2,TC4) for the extra ignition in, out; therefore ** NO injector PWM ** with this option. Also, NO trigger return, NO wheel decode, NO EDIS. Also set ISR_tmask=0,_pmask < 20. The inputs are from 2 or 4 cyl crank or 4 cyl cam. They are in- dependent, allowing 2 cyl, possibly 4 cyl odd fire.
    • Falling Cam Sync with Tach or Wheel ,or Rising Cam Sync with Tach or Wheel for 2 cyl COP/ 4 cyl wasted spark with normal tach pulse or m-n or m-0 wheel on input 1, cam synch on input 2;option 2= falling, 3= rising edge for cam synch. When cam synch occurs, fire Output 1, then fire O/P 2 on next tach, etc. No inj pwm, NO trig_ret, No EDIS. On MicroSquirt ® EFI controller, cam_sync must fall inside missing tooth gap; with the MS-II Sequencer board cam_sync can come anywhere after Cam_Tooth and before 1st tooth after missing gap.
    • Single Crank Wheel Input is same as 2,3 but 1 toothed wheel on input 1 (input 2 is unused). On tooth after missing tooth(teeth) fire output 1, then fire output 2 after skip teeth (= next tach), etc.
    • Single Cam Wheel Input same as 4 except wheel on cam, so use 1/2 crank skip teeth.
    • Dual Inputs, Timing from 1 cam tooth same as 1 except timing signal from 1 cam tooth, 2 cyl only.
    • N-0 Wheel w/ Falling Crank Sync or N-0 Wheel w/ Rising Crank Sync same as 2,3 but crank synch on 2nd input, no missing teeth. These options can support odd-fire through the OddAng input. These are meant for crank wheels, generally flywheels, with no missing teeth and a nub or bolt or hole in the flywheel that is sensed by a separate VR sensor. It is a wasted spark mode, not a sequential. Also, even if a mode says M - 0, you still have to put the missing tooth in as 0.
  • Offset (advance) for Output #2 : With the Dual Spark function enabled, the trigger offset should be set 'negative'. That is, there are always two choices for trigger offset. The timing looks as follows: ...----| |----... ...----|--------------|--------------------------------|----... ...- tach1-----------TDC-----------------------------tach2 -... ...----| | |----... So in theory you can normally pick either +x ° (BTDC) or -y ° ATDC (where x ° + y ° = degrees between firings = 90° for a 8 cylinder, 180° for a 4 cylinder, etc.). For non-Dual Spark function, it doesn't matter which offset you choose because the dwell + spark sequence for a cylinder can be anywhere in the cycle, and we have generally used positive (+) degrees in the documents. But for Dual Spark, because it is too complicated and there is not enough RAM or CPU time, you must start and finish both dwell and spark within the time between 2 consecutive tach pulses. In this case we always want to use the negative y degrees, or else the math ends up coming out incorrect in the code. For example, if tach1 occurs at a trigger offset of +40° BTDC, tach2 occurs -320° ATDC ( and there is 360 degrees between firing, so a 2 cylinder engine ). For dual spark mode we always want a negative trigger offset, so you would use -320° instead of +40°. The -320° offset seems unusual, but there is a reason for it. The original code started with a very robust triggering system where people could put their sensors anywhere and use any kind of advance with any kind of offset. This was a nightmare to code and impossible to maintain with the dual spark system, which was based on a strictly next cylinder firing setup. In fact it sets up to fire 2 cylinders before the actual spark occurs. This allows plenty of time for dwell at high rpm. To maintain the previous terminology for users as well as keeping the code consistent, the advance offset was left as it was, but whereas for the original (non-dual spark) system it was best to use a positive trig offset (but negative offsets would also work), while dual spark requires a 0° to negative (ATDC) advance offset. If you try to put in -320° offset in some older MegaTune ini files, it won't allow it, so use the latest ini file which opens up the limits to +/359°. For more info on the Dual Spark options, see this page: /
  • IAT-based Spark Retard Limiting Options :
    • Start IAT Retard : RPM at which to begin applying the intake air temperature based spark retard amount. It will be zero below this, and rise linearly to the full amount at the Full IAT Retard rpm ( below ).
    • Full IAT Retard : RPM at which to fully apply the intake air temperature based spark retard amount. It will be the full amount of retard above this, and fall linearly zero at the Start IAT Retard rpm ( above ).
  • Signal Delay Parameters :
    • FET Output Delay : This setting is intended to adjust for the slight delay between when the processor sends the output signal to the FET (output transistor) and when the transistor actually turns on. The delay is very small, but measurable, and useful mostly in laboratory conditions where highly accurate measurements can be obtained. For users in the real world, there is no need to change this from the default value.
    • VR Input Delay : For those lucky enough to know the latency (delay time) between the physical event the VR sensor is capturing and the time the signal is generated. This has an effect on timing because it does not change with rpm, so it is a constant added to the variable time difference between teeth. It is useful for doing very precise timing of specific events. In the real world, very few can measure this latency, and even fewer would see any improvements by adjusting it (you would have to calibrate everything else in the system). It is primarily useful for those working in a laboratory.
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If the home you're renting is your second home or a vacation home, you also need to be aware of how this affects it as a rental to relatives. Regardless of what you charge for rent, their use equals your personal use. Their use goes against your 14 days of rental use, or 10 percent of rental days, when rental income is tax-free.


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